Gang Culture and Violence Against Women in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala by Thomas Boerman, Jennifer Knapp :: SSRN

The Salvadoran government launched its first NAP in 2017 for a period of six years ( ). The NAP was created to streamline current strategies and actions for the coordinated implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda. The development of the NAP was led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Salvadoran Institute for the Development of Women, and Implementation Committee and its Technical Monitoring Committee. These entities had been tasked with convening with UN Women, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Spanish Agency for International Development and Cooperation, the Central American Integration System and lastly the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy. El Salvador was still reeling from the aftermath of its harmful Civil War when two earthquakes struck in January and February 2001, killing over 1,000 and displacing another 1.3 million folks.

In 1979, Carlos Humberto Romero, the dictator ofEl Salvador, was pushed out of energy by a junta of reformist politicians and officers. As residing conditions failed to enhance beneath the new authorities, and right wing paramilitary groups perpetrated increasingly worse human rights violations, a leftist coalition, theFarabundo Martí National Liberation Front(FMLN), formed a military to oppose the federal government and paramilitary forces. El Salvador’s government was soon embroiled in what can be a brutal twelve-year civil struggle against the FMLN insurgents.

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In 2016, 524 women were killed, a majority of them underneath 30 years of age. El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America with an estimated population of 6.2 million. However, this number is often fluctuating due to large violence within the nation. El Salvador has the world’s highest homicide charges and pervasive felony gangs.

With the approaching deportation of more than 250,000 Salvadorans from the United States, the situation is unlikely to enhance, and can only worsen. Yet the federal authorities’s present estimate of round 10,000 MS-thirteen members throughout 40 U.S. states hasn’t changed in more than a decade, and only a fraction of unaccompanied minors apprehended since 2011 have confirmed gang ties. The Trump administration has endorsed San Salvador’s militarized approach to combating the gangs, which designates anybody collaborating with gang members as terrorists, too. Human rights officials have excoriated Salvadoran authorities’ use of excessive force and extrajudicial killings, together with in opposition to youngsters.

A court docket within the Central American country, which bans abortion under all circumstances, ruled it aggravated murder. More than 600 transgender women were murdered between 1993 and 2020, in accordance with one human rights group. Camila Diaz, a 29-year-old transgender lady who fled from El Salvador following repeated threats on her life from a gang, was killed in early February.

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“Young People in Latin America Still Think Violence towards Women Is ‘Normal.’”Oxfam, 25 July 2018, /en/pressroom/pressreleases/ /young-people-latin-america-still-suppose-violence-towards-women. In 1970, Mélida Anaya Montes co-based the Fuerzas Populares de Liberación (FPL), the first guerrilla group in El Salvador that would go on to kind the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). Before she adopted the pseudonym Commander Ana María and fought as second-in-command, Mélida was an educator at a instructor’s faculty and later organized teachers’ strikes across the country.

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Understanding these relationships offers new points for engagement when working to forestall and mitigate gang violence. Living adjoining to the thriving tradition of Korean, Cambodian, and African American gangs, many young women and men turned to Salvadoran gangs to protect their group and to say their dominance over other teams.

The remaining women, a part of a group known as “Las 17,” are each at present serving yr sentences. They imagine their “strategic litigation” has established an necessary legal precedent to extend equal access to justice within the nation – and that it’s going to result in the eventual release of all the ladies imprisoned in relation to the country’s complete abortion ban, in accordance with a latest press release. In 2018, two legislators proposed bills to legalise abortion under certain circumstances within the Salvadoran meeting. In May 2018, new officials took workplace and the country’s right-wing party gained the higher hand within the legislature, squashing the potential for approving both legislation. Since the Central American nation banned abortion beneath all circumstances in 1998, dozens of ladies have been sentenced to up to 30 years for abortion-associated crimes.

She believes abortion rights advocates, especially legislators like herself, want to focus on their plight extra prominently. But abortion rights advocates say parental consent requirements — even if they make exceptions for medical emergencies or pregnancies ensuing from incest — characterize the kind of “incremental” abortion limits that led to El Salvador’s blanket ban within the Nineties. All have el salvadorian women been from states which have recently passed payments proscribing abortion rights — including Alabama, which final year banned virtually all abortions. (A federal decide has briefly blocked that legislation.) As a end result, the legislators wished to see El Salvador’s absolute abortion ban up shut.

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Polo met an inmate named Berta Margarita Arana, a Salvadoran woman serving eight years for trying an abortion. Angélica is certainly one of 20 women in her canton who has been educated in awareness-elevating on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and gender equality. The training was organized by the Salvadoran Association for Rural Health (ASAPROSAR) with help from the Global Fund and in partnership with UNDP. Understanding the roles women play in gang-affected societies like El Salvador creates new factors for intervention and disruption of gang activities.

Additionally, whereas gang violence in El Salvador has been properly-studied, it’s rare for literature to debate it as a gendered phenomenon. The literature that does (see in particular the work carried out by Mo Hume) often focuses on the necessary problem of violence in opposition to women, but not necessarily on women as leaders or determination-makers in peace and security points. It just isn’t possible in this article to handle all gendered security elements of gang violence broadly or in El Salvador specifically, however we name for added scholarship on these critical issues. Legal adjustments were achieved in this regard, in the areas of family law, civil regulation and criminal legislation.

Women are additionally influenced to affix by associates, boyfriends, husbands, and brothers who are gang-affiliated. Broadly speaking, gang membership might provide both security and a measure of independence for ladies. Women perform a variety of functions associated to gangs in El Salvador.